In nearly all infectious diseases, genetic and environmental factors interact with the infectious agent that is the direct cause of the disease. Several infectious agents have been identified to cause disease in man during the last decades for example; the bacteria Helicobacter pylori has been shown to cause gastric ulcer; the virus Human papilloma virus has been shown to cause cancer and the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease.

Apodemus  targets enterovirus which belongs to the picornaviriedae family and comprise more that 200 known human pathogenic viruses including several rhinoviruses that are responsible for about half of the cases of common cold, poliovirus that causes polio, EV-A71 and EV-D68 that has recieved increased attention during recent years and may cause serious and even lethal infections primarily in children.